Planning and design for sustainable urban mobility

by United Nations Human Settlements Programme Published by : Routledge press (New York) Physical details: xxv,317p. ISBN:9780415723183. Year: 2013 List(s) this item appears in: transport books
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list of Figures, Boxes and Tables
list of Acronyms and Abbreviations
1 The Urban Mobility Challenge
Accessibility is at the Core of Urban Mobility
The Transport Bias of Mobility
Some of the Forces Promoting the Transport Bias
Trends and Conditions in Transport-Oriented Mobility Systems
Varying but declining dominance of public transport
Non-motorized transport
Traffic congestion Sustainability Challenges of Urban Mobility
Integration of land-use and transport planning
Social dimensions
Environmental dimensions
Economic dimensions
Institutional and governance dimensions Concluding Remarks and Structure of the Report Notes
2 The State of Urban Passenger Transport Non-Motorized Transport
Developing countries
Developed countries
Infrastructure for non-motorized transport
Impacts of non-motorized transport Formal Public Transport
Developing countries
Developed countries
Infrastructure for public transport
Impacts of formal public transport Informal Transport
Developing countries
Developed countries
Impacts of informal transport Private Motorized Transport
Developed countries
Developing countries
Infrastructure for private motorized transport
Impacts of private motorized transport Intermodality in Urban Transport Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy Notes
3 Metro, Light Rail and BRT
Main Characteristics of Metro, Light Rail and BRT Systems
Light rail
Bus rapid transit
Main physical characteristics, outputs and requirements Examples of National Policies toward High-Capacity Public Transport in Developing Countries
South Africa
Metro Systems Around the World: Trends and Conditions Light Rail Systems Around the World: Trends and Conditions BRT Systems Around the World: Trends and Conditions Main Challenges Facing High-Capacity Public Transport Systems
Integration within the public transport system
Integration with other elements of the transport system
Integration with the built environment
Quality of service
Financial risks in public transport project development
Funding sources
Public transport subsidies
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy Notes
4 Urban Goods Transport
Urban Goods Transport: Key Components and Actors
Components of urban goods transport
Actors and stakeholders in urban goods transport Trends and Conditions of Urban Goods Transport
Developed countries
Developing countries Goods Transport in an Urban Context
Terminal facilities
Distribution facilities
Logistics sprawl Challenges of Urban Goods Transport
Environmental challenges
Economic Challenges
Social and institutional challenges Existing Policy Responses
Rationalization of deliveries
Freight facilities
Modal adaptation
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy 73
Notes 73
Mobility and Urban Form 75
decentralization, Car Dependence and Travel 77
The dispersal metropolis 77
Global urban density patterns and trends ;
Urban transport as a factor increasing urban sprawl 78
Urban density and travel 79
Other attributes of urban form influencing travel 80
Urban form and travel . 82
Urban Densities and Public Transport Thresholds 84
Planning the Accessible City 87
Built Environments and Travel at the Neighbourhood Scale 90
Traditional neighbourhoods and the new urbanism 92
Transit-oriented development (TOD) 93
Traffic-calmed and car-restricted neighbourhoods 94
Corridor Contexts 95
Mobility and development trade-offs 95
Public transport-oriented corridors 96
Regional Context n 99
Connectivity and large urban configurations 99
City cluster variances and transport responses 99
Impacts of Transportation Investments on Urban Form 102
Impacts of public transport investments 102
Public transport and land price appreciation 103
Bus-based public transport and urban-form adjustments 104
Impacts of motorways 104
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy 105
Notes 106
Equitable Access to Urban Mobility 107
Affordable Urban Mobility 108
Challenges and impacts of urban poverty 108
Policy responses and innovative practices 111
Supporting non-motorized transport 111
Improving affordability and quality of service of public transport 112
Improving affordability through urban form and land use 114
Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Groups and Urban Mobility 115
Global conditions, trends and challenges 115
Policy responses and innovative practices 118
Gender-sensitive design, infrastructure and services 119
Increasing pedestrian accessibility and safety 120
'Universal design' or 'access for all' 120
Safety and Security in Urban Mobility Systems 121
Global conditions, trends and challenges 121
Road traffic accidents 121
Transportation security: Risks and fears related to the use of public transport 122
Policy responses and innovative practices 123
Reducing road traffic accidents 123
Improving the safety and security of vulnerable groups 125
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy 126
Notes 127
Urban Mobility and the Environment 129
Environmental Challenges in Urban Mobility Systems 129
Motorization and oil dependence 130
Mobility and climate change 132
Dependence on motorized forms of transport and urban sprawl 134
Human health concerns 135
Air pollution 135
Noise pollution 136
Human health and physical activity 136
Community severance, open spaces and mental health 136
Reducing the Number of Motorized Trips 136
Reducing Travel Distances in Cities 138
Changing the Modal Split 139
Technological Innovation and Vehicle Efficiency 141
Efficiency and age of the vehicle stock 141
Standards of fuels used and emissions from vehicles 142
Alternative fuels 144
Occupancy (load) factors 145
The Composite Solution 146
Funding Mechanisms for Environmentally Sustainable Urban Mobility Systems 148
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy 149
Notes 150
8 The Economics and Financing of Urban Mobility 153
The Economic and Financial Challenges of Urban Mobility 154
The global dominance of private motorized transport 154
Economic characteristics by mode and context 155
Non-motorized transport 155
Public transport 155
Informal motorized transport , 157
Private motorized transport 157
Economic Value of the Transport Sector 158
From Economics of Mobility towards Economics of Access 159
What has time saving got to do with it? 159
Measuring the value of access 159
Urban mobility is both a private and a public good 160
Road pricing is necessary but normally not sufficient to improve urban accessibility 160
The private car versus public transport: Markets and modal choices 161
The Perennial Financial Problem: Costs Exceed Revenues 161
User charges are never sufficient to finance public transport 161
The high private cost of transport 162
Good quality urban transport: The system is the solution 162
Expanding the Financial Options for Public and Non-Motorized Transport 163
General revenue models 163
Other allocations of public funds 164
Value-capture models 166
Other public-private partnerships 168
Combination models 170
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy 172
Notes 173
9 Institutions and Governance for Urban Mobility 175 Understanding Institutional and Governance Frameworks for Urban Mobility 175
Conditions and Trends 176
Developed countries 176
Countries with economies in transition 177
Developing countries 178
Africa - 178
Latin America and the Caribbean 178
Western Asia 170
South Asia 179
South-Eastern Asia 180
Eastern Asia 180
Challenges and Underlying Influences 181
Adaptation challenges 181
administrative and governance challenges 182
Mobility policy, plan-making, management and regulatory challenges 182
Resourcing and capacity-building challenges 183
Policy Responses and Innovative and 'Successful Practices 185
Integrated urban land-use and mobility planning 185
Privatization, decentralization and centralization 186
Addressing urban boundary complications 187
Mobility policy, plan-making and management 188 Mainstreaming environmental concerns , 189
Mainstreaming mobility needs of the socially and economically disadvantaged 189 Addressing freight movement needs 189 Public transport planning and service delivery 190
Multi-modal integration 191
Sustainable funding 192
Concluding Remarks and Lessons for Policy 193
Notes 194
10 Toward Sustainable Urban Mobility 197
Policies and Practices for Reframing Urban Mobility 198
Holistic and systemic thinking and action 198
Transport as a means, not an end 198
Accessibility as a priority rather than transport 199
Policy and Operational Entry Points 199
Enhancing the linkage between land use and transport 199
Revitalizing urban planning and transport engineering designs 200
Realigning transport infrastructure investment and development 200
Integrating urban transport facilities and service operations 201
Streamlining urban institutions and governance frameworks 202
Readjusting legal and regulatory instruments 203
Concluding Remarks 203
Notes 204
Technical Notes 207
Explanation of Symbols 207
Country Groupings and Statistical Aggregates 207
World major groupings 207
Sub-regional aggregates 207
Africa 207
Asia 208
Europe 208
Latin America and the Caribbean 208
Northern America 208
Oceania 208
Nomenclature and Order of Presentation 208
Definition of Terms 208
Sources of Data 211
Notes 211
Data Tables 213
Regional Aggregates 213
A. 1 Total population size, rate of change and population density 213 A.2 Urban and rural population size and rate of change 214
A.3 Urbanization and urban slum dwellers 215
A.4 Number of urban households, rate of change and mean household size 216
A. 5 Urban agglomerations 217
Country-Level Data 220
B. 1 Total population size, rate of change and population density 220
B.2 Urban and rural population size and rate of change 224
B.3 Urbanization and urban slum dwellers 228
B.4 Number of urban households, rate of change and mean household size 232
B.5 Access to drinking water and sanitation 236
B.6 Poverty and inequality 240
B.7 Transport infrastructure 244
B.8 Road motor vehicles and fuel prices 248
B.9 Road traffic accidents 252
City-Level Data 256 C. 1 Urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more: Population size
and rate of change 256
C.2 Population of capital cities (2011) 266
C.3 Access to services in selected cities 270
Index 307

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